Design a data structure that follows the constraints of a Least Recently Used (LRU) cache.

Implement the LRUCache class:

  • LRUCache(int capacity) Initialize the LRU cache with positive size capacity.
  • int get(int key) Return the value of the key if the key exists, otherwise return -1.
  • void put(int key, int value) Update the value of the key if the key exists. Otherwise, add the key-value pair to the cache. If the number of keys exceeds the capacity from this operation, evict the least recently used key.

Example 1:

Constraints:

  • 1 <= capacity <= 3000
  • 0 <= key <= 3000
  • 0 <= value <= 104
  • At most 3 * 104 calls will be made to get and put.

Intuition

The problem can be solved with a hashmap that keeps track of the keys and its values in the double linked list. That results in O(1) time for put and get operations and allows to remove the first added node in O(1) time as well.

One advantage of double linked list is that the node can remove itself without other reference. In addition, it takes constant time to add and remove nodes from the head or tail.

One particularity about the double linked list implemented here is that there are pseudo head and pseudo tail to mark the boundary, so that we don’t need to check the null node during the update.

Code

Complexity Analysis

  • Time complexity : O(1) both for put and get.
  • Space complexity : O(capacity) since the space is used only for a hashmap and double linked list with at most capacity + 1 elements.

Full Stack Programmer, love to solve problem’s during free time.